Communism is a political philosophy that promotes a classless society, a hypothetical form of society. The communist philosophy is based on the premise that there are different classes in society and there is a struggle between them. The communist philosophy was proposed by Karl Marx. He along with his friend Engels wrote two books Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto.
Communism, as practiced, was first implemented in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1918. After that Communist governments were established throughout the world, resulting in a bi-polarized world—the democratic block led by the United States, and the Communist block led by the Soviet Union. No Communist country was classless; instead the new Communist dictators and the bureaucracy formed a new privileged class called nomenclatura. For more than a half century, Communist governments and their policies resulted in the deaths of approximately 100 million people. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw popular revolts against Communist dictatorships, and most Communist regimes collapsed.