Support for creation and evolution
Support for creation and evolution varies widely according to country, religious beliefs, and other factors.
Support for creation is stronger in the United States than most if not all other countries, and this is also where the most polling has been done on the topic.
|Year[note 1]||Naturalistic evolution||God used evolution||Creation||Don't know|
|Human beings have developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God had no part in this process.||Humans developed over millions of years from less advanced forms of life, but God guided this process||God created human beings pretty much in the present form at one time within the last 10,000 years or so.|
A different Gallup poll was taken in the week before the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, with the following results:
|Do you, personally, believe in the theory of evolution, do you not believe in evolution, or don't you have an opinion either way?|
|Believe in evolution||Do not believe in evolution||No opinion either way||No answer|
The 1997 Gallup poll also provided figures for scientists.
|Naturalistic evolution||God used evolution||Creation|
As there are around two million scientists in the United States, this is equivalent to there being approximately 100,000 scientists who believe that God created humans in pretty much their present form.
A 2009 Pew Poll found that 87% of scientists (members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science) "think that humans, other living things have evolved due to natural processes", compared to 32% of the public.
Both of these figures would have been for all types of scientists, including those of fields unrelated to biology and life sciences such as engineering and business administration.
A figure often quoted to show that support for creation amongst scientists in fields more relevant to evolution was published in Newsweek in 1987. This said that "By one count there are some 700 scientists with respectable academic credentials (out of a total of 480,000 U.S. earth and life scientists) who give credence to creation-science...". This is equivalent to 0.14% of earth and life scientists giving credence to creation science. However, Newsweek did not provide any details of the "count", such as how it was done, which means that the accuracy of this figure is unknown.
A national survey in the United States of 1,472 physicians was conducted by the Louis Finkelstein Institute for Social and Religious Research in May 2005. This showed that 80% of respondents accepted evolution.
|God created humans exactly as they appear now.||God initiated and guided an evolutionary process that has led to current human beings.||Humans evolved naturally with no supernatural involvement - no divinity played any role.||I don't like to think about such matters|
A 2009 ComRes poll in Britain found that over half believe that evolution cannot explain the complex structures of some living things, and around a third believe that God created the world within the last 10,000 years.
|evolution alone is not enough to explain the complex structures of some living things, so the intervention of a designer is needed at key stages|
|God created the world sometime in the last 10,000 years.|
A survey by the Australian National University in 2000 found that about 45% of people doubted, or were not sure, if humans evolved via natural selection, compared to about 55% who thought this was definitely or probably true.
A poll (by UMR Research) in 2004 reported in the Sydney Morning Herald found that 28% of people thought that "the Bible offers a more likely explanation of the origin of life than evolution", 43% favoured evolution, 12% opted for a mixture of both, and 17% were undecided "whether the earth was made in six days or billions of years".
- ↑ Actual dates of polls:
- 1982: January
- 1993: 23rd to 26th June
- 1997: 6th to 9th November
- 1999: 24th to 26th August
- 2001: 19th to 21st February
- 2004: 7th to 10th November
- 2006: 8th to 11th May
- 2007: 10th to 13th May
- 2008: 8th to 11th May
- 2010: 10th to 12th December
- 2012: 3rd to 6th May
- 2014: 8th to 11th May
- ↑ Newport, Frank, Majority of Republicans Doubt Theory of Evolution, Gallup News, 11 June 2007.
- ↑ USA Today/Gallup Poll
- ↑ Frank Newport, In U.S., 46% Hold Creationist View of Human Origins, Fri. 1st June, 2012Fri. June 1st, 2012.
- ↑ Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design
- ↑ Newport, Frank, On Darwin’s Birthday, Only 4 in 10 Believe in Evolution, Gallup, 11 February 2009.
- ↑ Robinson, B. A., Results of public opinion polls on evolution and creation science.
- ↑ National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Statistics. Employed scientists, engineers, technicians (SETs), and SET managers, by detailed industry of employment: 2001.
- ↑ The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Public Praises Science; Scientists Fault Public, Media, 9 July 2009.
- ↑ Newsweek magazine, 29 June 1987, p.23.
- ↑ Scientists alive today who accept the biblical account of creation (accessed 25 August 2009).
- ↑ Majority of Physicians Give the Nod to Evolution Over Intelligent Design, HCD Research press release, 23 May, 2005
- ↑ Survey results, Q.7
- ↑ Wynee-Jones, Jonathan, Poll reveals public doubts over Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, Telegraph.co.uk, 31 January 2009.
- ↑ The Australian, 1 February 2000, quoted by Catchpoole, David, Morals decline linked to belief in evolution, 5 July 2000.
- ↑ Coultan, Mark, Bible belt puts squeeze on evolution, Sydney Morning Herald, 28 October 2004